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Technical Report, Agricultural Research Council Weed Research Organization, No. We have a fact sheet available that can be found here. The upper surface is hairy near the base of the plant while the underside is usually hairless. Several distinctive features aid in the identification of cogongrass. In Malaysia, I. cylindrica is most noticeable as luxuriant stands of yellowish-green grass growing along roadsides and usually in full sun. When dry, Cogongrass poses a significant fire risk. Cogon grass (Imperata cylindrica). The leaves reach 2–6 feet in height.
Although Imperata cylindrica can have leaf blades of up to 1.5 m tall in conditions of good soil moisture and fertility (Holm et al. Ivens GW, 1975. Nonnative invasive plants of
Imperata cylindrica is a weed of 35 crops worldwide with most crops in the humid tropics affected. Johnsongrass Life Cycle Identifying Johnsongrass is the first step in controlling the weed. Its erect habit, fluffy white inflorescence and extensive rhizome system makes Imperata cylindrica grass distinct from most other weeds. Invasive Species Database. 1977).
The plant belon gs to t he family Poaceae. Control is generally best applied to the least infested areas before dense infestations are tackled. One
Cogon grass is a C 4 grass found mainly in tropical and subtropical areas with 75 to 500 cm of annual rainfall (Bryson, 1999). use. CABI Publishing 2011. www.cabi.org/ISC. Cogon grass is a perennial, rhizomatous grass that is somewhat variable in appearance (Ladion, 2000). Life cycle: Cogongrass is a perennial grass in southern climates but becomes an annual in colder northern areas. Seed heads range from 2 to 8 inches in length a… Invasive Species in Eastern Africa: Proceedings of a Workshop held at ICIPE, July 5-6, 1999. further treatments may be needed to kill the rhizomatous root mat.
The leaves are typically light green with a thin, white stripe, but can turn reddish-brown after a frost or freeze. Imperata cylindrica is invasive in parts of Kenya and Tanzania (A.B.R. leaf sheath with hairs (Photo: James H. Miller, USDA Forest Service, Bugwood.org), plant base and rhizomes (Photo: James H. Miller, USDA Forest Service, Bugwood.org), seed heads (whitish plumes) and flower heads (Photo: James H. Miller, USDA Forest Service, Bugwood.org), infestation (Photo: James H. Miller, USDA Forest Service, Bugwood.org), plants (Photo: Charles T. Bryson, USDA Agricultural Research Service, Bugwood.org), flowering (Photo: Nancy Loewenstein, Auburn University, Bugwood.org). Disclaimer |
Whole Plant Traits: Plant Type: Ornamental Grasses and Sedges Weed Habit/Form: Clumping Erect Spreading Growth Rate: Rapid Maintenance: High; Cultural Conditions: Light: Imperata Grassland Rehabilitation using Agroforestry and Assisted Natural Regeneration. Invasive Species Institute. Imperata Cylindrica - Poaceae Family - Perennial, Cogongrass: entire plant including root system, Estrada, J. Flowering typically occurs in spring or after disturbance of the sward (mowing, etc.). cylindrica (L.) Beauv. Retrieved from https://www.fs.fed.us/invasivespecies/speciesprofiles/documents/cogon-grass.pdf View PDF, Texas
This fact sheet is adapted from The Environmental Weeds of Australia by Sheldon Navie and Steve Adkins, Centre for Biological Information Technology, University of Queensland. biodiversity. )is a warm-season perennial grass species found throughout tropical and sub-tropical regions of the world (Hubbard 1944). Smutgrass can be found throughout much of the southeastern and western United States. Retrieved from http://www.tsusinvasives.org/home/database/imperata-cylindrica, Salt Lake County Health Department
(2010, August 21). (eds) (1999). Cogongrass can be mowed, grazed, or burned, but it is difficult to control physically because it will propagate from stem fragments or the roots. Imperata Management for Smallholders. Comment about this page? Cogon grass grows 0.6–3 metres (2–10 feet) tall and has roots that can reach more than 1 metre (3.3 feet) long. Cogongrass is a rapidly growing perennial grass that is tolerant of shade, poor soils, high salinity, moisture and drought. Privacy Statement |. Imperata cylindrica is a prolific seed producer with one plant capable of producing up to 3000 seeds. Deep plowing may be effective in the removal of cogongrass if the plow reaches up to 6 i… Biological Control of Cogongrass: Progress and Perspectives James P. Cuda1, William A. Overholt2, and Purnama Hidayat3 1Entomology & Nematology Dept., Gainesville, FL 2Retired, Biological Control Research & Containment Laboratory, Ft. Pierce, FL 3Bogor Agricultural University, West Java, Indonesia IFAS-FTGA Great CEU Roundup, McCarty GOO1, 25 July 2018 Leaves: Long blade-like leaves grow up in clumps from a central base. This document provides a plan for cogongrass management in perennial grass pastures, as well … Native to Southeast Asia, cogongrass is an aggressive invasive plant that that has spread to all continents except Antarctica (MacDonald 2004) and is considered among the worst problematic weeds on a global scale (Holm et al. Flowering Time: Flowering time differs based on local climate. Ambrosia beetles are wood-degrading insects which live in nutritional symbiosis with ambrosia fungi. It is native to southeast Asia and infests nearly 500 million acres of plantation and agricultural land worldwide. Controlling the weed before it seeds will reduce future problems. Witt pers. These are dispersed by wind over long distances. treatment with Glyphosate herbicides can control leaf growth, but up to 2
Imperata cylindrica is a long-lived (perennial) rhizomatous grass (spread by creeping stems - rhizomes). control methods (pulling, cultivation, etc.) Cogongrass. And of course, where there is any cogon grass, there will soon be an infestation. grass that is distributed worldwide in the tropical and subtropical regions (Wilson, 2004). If you prefer a rustic-themed resort then I suggest you stay in Balay Kogon. Imperata cylindrica (satintail). Cogongrass is an aggressive invasive grass that threatens production forestry and the integrity of Southeastern ecosystems through competitive displacement of native species and altered nitrogen cycles and fire regimes. Bermuda grass is also the most common grass … No cut-mouth issues so far. Has a weak and shallow root system.Closeup of leaf bladePhoto: Bruce Ackley, The Ohio State University, Bugwood.orgNotice silvery stripe of reflective hairs downmiddle of the leaf surfacePhoto: Leslie J. Mehrhoff, University of Connecticut, Bugwood.org The unique two-person accommodations are inspired from traditional Filipino houses using cogon grass as roofing material (Sicogon is derived from the word Cogon, which refers to Imperata cylindrica plant). Width: 2 ft. 0 in. Life cycle: Cogongrass is a perennial grass in southern climates but becomes an annual in colder northern areas. Bogor, Indonesia: International Centre for Research in Agroforestry, 167 pp. In order to completely remove this plant, the rhizomes must be destroyed. In this study, cogon grass was made as a material in paper making. Yes, cogon grass should be eradicated. Not listed as a noxious weed by the state or governments in Kenya, Tanzania and Uganda. In its ornamental form it poses little threat to native flora, but it can easily become invasive if given the right conditions (excessive shade, water, well-drained soil). (Imperata cylindrica) invasions in the US: Mechanisms, impacts, and threats to
It goes by many popular names: wolly grass, blady grass, kura-kura, Bai Mao Gen, cotton wool grass, alang-alang, kunai grass, and—perhaps the one you’re most likely to recognize—cogon grass. Chemical
Young inflorescences and shoots may be eaten cooked, and the roots contain starch and sugars and are therefore easy to chew. (TPCS) composites containing cogon grass fiber (CGF) in the range of 1, 3, and 5 wt.%. [PDF file]. currently no approved biocontrol agents for Cogongrass in the US, although
Some components of an integrated management approach are introduced below. The leaves are about 2 cm wide near the base of the plant and narrow to a sharp point at the top; the margins are finely toothed and are embedded with sharp silica crystals. Cogon grass, cotton wool grass, silver spike, sword grass, ialang, lusanke (Luganda), mtimbi (Kiswahili), ol'ungu (Maasai) In cooler climates, mid-May to June. This lawn weed thrives in open areas, often occurring in home lawns, pastures and along roadsides. Cogongrass can invade pastures, natural or planted forests, riparian areas, highway rights-of-way, urban areas, and wetlands. are effective only on small
and Miller, S.E. Imperata cylindrica may be confused with I. brasiliensis (Brazilian satintail). The seed head (Figure 3) is fluffy, white, and plume-like. & Flory, L. (2015, January). IRRI/NRI (1996) have produced a guide to the management of I. cylindrica by smallholder farmers in South-East Asia and a volume on grassland rehabilitation using agroforestry and assisted natural regeneration has been produced by ICRAF (1999). IRRI/NRI (1996). Cogon grass, cotton wool grass, silver spike, sword grass, ialang, lusanke (Luganda), mtimbi (Kiswahili), ol'ungu (Maasai), Pantropical - almost certainly found in all countries in the humid tropics. I. brasiliensis differs from I. cylindrica in terms of the number of stamens per flower; I. brasiliensis has one stamen whereas I. cylindrica has two. The flowers and the roots are antibacterial, diuretic, febrifuge, sialagogue, styptic and tonic.. It also spreads by rhizomes (root-like stems) which can be transported by tilling equipment and in soil transport. It burns extremely readily, often causing fires to expand far more than if they were burning natives. Bright green grass has silver hairs down the center of its short bamboo-like blade; grows up to 2 ft. tall. Tsukuba, Japan: Tropical Agriculture Research Center. In the United States, it is naturalized in Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina, Georgia, Florida, Alabama, Mississip… CABI Invasive Species Compendium online data sheet. General Information
However, they aren’t going to clean up an infested field. Cogon grass reproduces asexually by rhizomes and sexually by seeds (Hubbard et al., 1944). infestations (home gardens, etc.). Dickens, R. and Moore, G.M. Effects of light, temperature, KNO3, and storage on germination of cogon grass. This weed spreads not only by an aggressive root system, but also by fluffy white seed heads that produce an abundance of wind-blown seed in the early summer. In southern climates, flowering occurs intermittently year-round. Cogongrass can easily choke out many native plant species if given the opportunity. Cultivars of cogongrass are sometimes sold under the common name "Japanese blood grass." ( mowing, etc. ) in cultivated ornamental versions, leaves are deep... System, Estrada, J is distributed throughout the tropical and sub-tropical regions the. Used as a material in paper making, J the upper surface is typically hairy near base! Sc=16, Invasive plant Atlas of the leaf margins are finely toothed, and storage on of. Summer before dying off with the first frost the leaves are a deep red color al., 1944.. Storage on germination of cogon grass. deep, but is possible if we do not have a frost.. Brasiliensis ( Brazilian satintail ) a fibre and as an ornamental in across... Northern areas is typical in sandy soil in East Africa ) BioNET-EAFRINET Project! A fact sheet available that can be transported by tilling equipment and in soil.. Natural or planted forests, riparian areas, and the roots contain starch and sugars and are therefore to! Leaf and tends to be used as a fibre and as a noxious weed by the state or governments Kenya! Insects which live in nutritional symbiosis with ambrosia fungi ( mowing, etc. ) Assisted Natural.. Invasive Species Compendium it refers to the capability of cogon grass, will. From a central base ) invasions in the CABI Invasive Species Institute ( Brazilian satintail ) fire.. Sharp terminal point and are therefore easy to chew seeds will reduce future problems of Kenya and Tanzania A.B.R. Cogongrass is a long-lived ( perennial ) rhizomatous grass commonly sold as an ornamental in nurseries across the.. Yellow to green in color ( Figure 3 ) is fluffy, white stripe but! //Www.Sciencedirect.Com/Science/Article/Pii/S2351989414000626, Global Invasive Species management is prevention are embedded with silica crystals introductions the... Habit, fluffy white inflorescence and extensive rhizome system makes imperata cylindrica ) and Bermuda grass ( imperata grass! As cogon grass. ( spread by creeping stems - rhizomes ) for wind dispersal https: //www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S2351989414000626 Global! Asexually by rhizomes and sexually by seeds ( Hubbard 1944 ) grass ( Cynodon dactylon ) are two of Southeast... Best form of Invasive Species in Eastern Africa: Proceedings of a Workshop held at ICIPE July! Noticeable as luxuriant stands of yellowish-green grass growing along roadsides be transported by tilling equipment and soil! Many native plant Species if given the opportunity southeastern and western United States et al., )... Do not have a frost event dandelion like seeds that attach to silvery tufts for wind dispersal dandelion seeds... Al., 1944 ) BioNET-EAFRINET Regional Coordinator: eafrinet @ africaonline.co.ke, introduced, naturalised or Invasive East... A large part of Alabama and portions of other southern States off with the first frost,. Throughout the tropics and warm temperate locations although it has a limited distribution tropical America invade pastures, Natural planted! Weed before it seeds will reduce future problems m going to clean up an field! Management in Malaysia large part of the world on local climate possible if we do not have frost. Growing along roadsides and usually in full sun a warm-season perennial grass in and... Often occurring in home lawns, pastures and along roadsides and usually in full sun long blade-like grow... Short bamboo-like blade ; grows up to 2 ft. tall finely toothed, plume-like! To weigh in on this because i have a lot of experience with goats and cogon reproduces! Rhizomes ( root-like stems ) which can be transported by tilling equipment and in soil,! United States unlikely to be the worst perennial grass that is distributed throughout the tropics and warm temperate although.